Donald Trump shakes hands with Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani in the Oval Office, 2018. In April 2018, Trump welcomed Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani, the ruler of Qatar, to the Oval Office. But in 2018, Trump changed his position and announced that Qatar did not in fact support terrorism. Will be used in accordance with our Privacy Policy. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, which is majority-owned by the Chinese government, has an office there, in a deal that has been reported on periodically. making authority. So the money keeps flowing. We bring more than 30 years of multifaceted experience to every job, and our expertise in structures, interiors and sustainable projects distinguishes us as one of California’s most trusted building partners. Qatar Investment Authority is the sovereign wealth fund of the State of Qatar. Instead, it appears to go from the U.S. subsidiary of the Qatar Investment Authority, a sovereign wealth fund, to HWA 555 Owners LLC. They create additional concerns in cases where Trump has a business connection, leaving the American public to wonder whether companies paying the president get special treatment. The Qataris also struck deals with American companies like Boeing and Raytheon. “There’s nobody better to tell me about Dodd-Frank than Jamie, so you’re going to tell me about it,” Trump said to Dimon at the time. In 2017 and 2018, the Trump Organization donated a reported $343,000 in profits from foreign governments. Chevron Phillips Chemical CEO Mark Lashier was teaming up with the Qataris on a new petrochemicals complex. Vornado to Explore Options to Recapitalize 1290 Avenue of the Americas and 555 California Street. If it’s hard to keep up with all of this, that’s the point. To Trump’s right sat billionaire Stefano Pessina of Walgreens Boots Alliance, a pharmacy giant that served as the largest tenant inside 40 Wall Street, Trump’s tower in the Financial District of New York City. Qatar denied the charges and worked to defend its reputation, shelling out hundreds of thousands of dollars to lobbyists to vouch for the embattled nation in Washington. No one works there. The Qataris finished outfitting their new office space on the 43rd floor sometime after February 2018, when the Saudi dispute was still raging, according to someone who worked inside the skyscraper. Blockchain business Ripple Labs weighed in on financial regulations while handing Trump roughly $1.2 million a year. It would be easy to brush all this aside if Trump’s tenants had never been accused of using money to buy influence. All contents © 2020 The Slate Group LLC. In October 2015, Deerfield, Illinois–based Walgreens Boots Alliance unveiled plans to acquire Rite Aid for $9.4 billion. There was a marble welcome desk but no one to welcome visitors. If you’re overseas and wish to return to Australia, be prepared for delays and read our advice on trying to get home.We encourage you to register with DFAT if you’re currently overseas and wish to return home but have not been able to. Instead, it appears to go from the U.S. subsidiary of the Qatar Investment Authority, a sovereign wealth fund, to HWA 555 Owners LLC. In other words, more than three times as much as the Trump Organization’s donations to the Treasury. At least 35 tenants lobbied the federal government on policy issues. Tenants inside 555 California Street include the state-owned Bank of India. In other words, despite preinauguration promises, half of the money flowing through the president’s commercial real estate portfolio does not appear to have gone through any internal vetting process. The rent estimates are intentionally conservative, which helps explain why the total adds up to 93% of the roughly $191 million that the president generates in annual rent. After the hammers stopped banging, however, the space went unusually quiet. On top of the counter sat a plant that looked like it had been dead for months. “They are keeping a couple of floors,” Eric Trump conceded onstage at a business conference weeks before the original lease was scheduled to expire. A peninsula hanging off Saudi Arabia, smaller than the state of Connecticut, Qatar has played an outsize role in global politics for one reason: money. Jones Day helped Huawei, the Chinese technology company that Trump labeled a national security risk, with issues before the White House while also paying the president an estimated $1.5 million a year. The QIA is governed by a board of directors. According to Trump Organization chief legal officer Alan Garten, Trump’s business did not review potential tenants in buildings where Trump held a minority stake. Which apparently means that the president’s two eldest sons, Eric and Don Jr., who took over day-to-day management of the president’s business when their father ascended to the presidency, were in a position to negotiate with the Chinese over how much money they would pay President Trump—while President Trump simultaneously negotiated with China as part of his massive trade war. In the course of researching the book, Alexander found out that Qatar’s national investment fund has been renting space in a San Francisco office building that Trump owns a share of—555 California St.—since at least August 2018. The Qatar Investment Authority (QIA) is Qatari's Sovereign Wealth Fund, specializing in domestic and foreign investments. — Melania Trump Sounds a Lot Like Her Husband in Stephanie Winston Wolkoff’s New Book— Jesmyn Ward Writes Through Grief Amid Protests and Pandemic— How Trump’s Handling of White Supremacists Could Create a Homegrown Crisis— Ashley Etienne May Be Biden’s Deadliest Weapon Against Trump— What’s the Reality Behind Netflix Hit Selling Sunset?— How to Abolish the Police, According to Josie Duffy Rice— The Pandemic Is Creating an Endless Summer in the Hamptons— From the Archive: The Perks and Perils of Being Donald Trump’s Daughter. The freshest-and most essential-updates from Washington, Wall Street, and Silicon Valley. Most are just trying to find places to do business. President Trump owns 30 percent of 555 California St., an office tower in downtown San Francisco. And that trust, according to documents the Trump Organization submitted to authorities in Washington, D.C., was set up “to hold assets for the exclusive benefit of Donald J. Trump.” Trump, in other words, personally holds 30% of the space the Qataris are leasing. Offices posed more of a challenge, since law firms and investment shops don’t typically plaster their names on the sides of their buildings. But after corroborating much of its information with calls to tenants and visits to the properties, I used it to help construct a new list of Trump’s tenants—the most complete look at who pays rent to the president ever published. That opened up a massive breach in the ethics pledge, because Trump’s two most valuable assets are minority stakes in office buildings: his 30% ownership of 1290 Avenue of the Americas and 555 California Street. Sign up for our daily Hive newsletter and never miss a story. Many rented the locations before their landlord became president. “Written approval of the ethics advisor is required for all actions, deals, and transactions that could potentially raise ethics or conflict-of-interest concerns,” they wrote in a white paper. The biggest breakthrough came in October 2019, when I happened upon a digital book revealing virtually all of the tenants inside Trump’s two hardest-to-access towers, which also happen to be the most important properties, 1290 Avenue of the Americas and 555 California Street. Current Assets for QIA is $295,200,000,000 and SWFI has 27 periods of historical assets, 65 subsidiaries, 262 transactions, 25 Opportunities/RFPs, 126 … In August 2018, Trump’s partner Vornado filed a document with San Francisco officials about work being done on the premises, describing the Qatar Investment Authority Advisory (USA) Inc. as a “lessee.” Construction crews built out an office, complete with intricate white latticework in the entryway. “This room,” he said, “is a fitting tribute to the economic and security partnership between our two nations.”. Slate is published by The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company. WHITE HOUSE, INC. How Donald Trump Turned the Presidency Into a Business. In the San Francisco office tower, however, it’s harder to make that case. The potential conflicts reached into other industries as well, with tenants of all types pushing the president on issues big and small, in directions Trump favored and opposed. The rule fell apart in the courts, allowing financial planners to continue giving questionable advice. The Qatari sovereign wealth fund is worth more than $ 100 billion, the 14th largest in the world behind those of such countries as Abu Dhabi, China, Kuwait and At least 17 faced federal investigations on matters including fraud, money laundering, and corruption. “And we’re going to take care of that.”. Good availability and great rates. took Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates’ side. The Kuwait Investment Authority (KIA) is the oldest sovereign wealth fund in the world. While writing this book, I dug in again, returning to the properties, speaking with tenants, and hunting for additional documents. “Good morning retailers,” Trump said. You can manage your newsletter subscriptions at any time. It’s worth more than twice as much as Trump Tower, more than seven times as much as Trump’s property in Vegas, 16 times as much as his Doral golf resort in Miami. Alexander found this out by way of a classic gumshoe ruse: He rented a desk in a co-working space on the 49th floor of the building, which is accessed from the same elevator as the QIA space on the 43rd floor. In general, be courteous to others. Ultimately, the intervention proved unnecessary. Qatari troops fought alongside Americans in the Gulf War. In 2018, the bank inked a new deal to rent 99,000 square feet of space in a different skyscraper a handful of blocks away. CS / Credit Suisse Group / Qatar Investment Authority - SC 13G Passive Investment. The Qatar Investment Authority is a sovereign wealth fund that invests domestically and internationally to curtail reliance on energy price volatility. A different tenant, JPMorgan Chase, weighed in on that regulation. Qatar Investment Authority is the sovereign wealth fund of the State of Qatar and is a major contributor to realizing the Qatar National Vision of 2030. Salaries posted anonymously by Qatar Investment Authority employees. Venable LLP, a firm renting space inside 1290 Avenue of the Americas for an estimated $12.2 million a year, lobbied the Treasury Department and Congress on behalf of Russian state-controlled bank Sberbank, weighing in on bills designed to expose corruption around the Kremlin and combat Russian interference in elections. But there were other businessmen there with more unorthodox connections to Qatar. But at the time, there were only two, in part because Trump had been slow to nominate commissioners. Not the White House.” The Trump Organization did not respond to a long list of questions. For financial firms, however, it posed a challenge, since many of their businesses generate revenue by steering clients toward products with big fees, which may not be best for clients. In 2018, the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office indicted the firm and its CEO as part of a corruption scheme related to New York City contracts. And you'll never see this message again. Thirty or more tenants collected over $8 billion in federal government contracts from 2018 to 2019 alone. In early June, the Saudis and several other Middle Eastern nations collectively cut off diplomatic ties with Qatar. Donald Trump’s corruption is also in some ways an inert story, politically, because every Republican except Mitt Romney has already demonstrated, re: Ukraine, that they will not take any actions to disincentivize him from even the most overt, explicit abuses of power. ... investment … “I travel a lot so could have missed it but definitely saw people in other offices. Regardless, the arrangement may be a violation of the U.S. Constitution, which forbids presidents from accepting “emoluments”—compensation—from foreign governments. No one answered, even though it was the middle of the afternoon. But that’s not the case. By joining Slate Plus you support our work and get exclusive content. Qatar Investment Authority | 31 380 abonnés sur LinkedIn | The Qatar Investment Authority - Building the Future with Global Vision. Clients count on us for professionalism, collaboration, and unrivaled attention to detail, from concept to completion. The “best” part of the story is that the office the Qataris rent from Trump in San Francisco appears to be empty. The timing of the rental is important: Early on in Trump’s term, his administration took Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates’ side in an ongoing dispute with Qatar, accusing Qatar of supporting terrorism. Walgreens Boots Alliance, JPMorgan Chase, Santander Bank, Morgan Stanley, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, and Goldman Sachs all paid the president rent while the federal government investigated their businesses. It was founded in 2005 to manage the oild and natural gas surpluses by the Government of Qatar. Despite all the attention paid to Trump’s cozy relationship with Fox, the deal has flown almost entirely under the radar. Anticipating concerns about conflicts of interest, the Trump Organization set up an ethics plan before the president took office. They just can’t get any money because the banks just won’t let them borrow because of the rules and regulations in Dodd-Frank.”. Before CNN watchers get too enraged, however, it’s worth noting that the Trump Organization has a similar agreement with that channel for use of an antenna atop the Trump International Hotel in Washington, D.C. Even the Girl Scouts, whose New York Council leases space inside 40 Wall Street for $600,000 a year, lobbied the White House on designating June 2017 “Great Outdoors Month,” which President Trump ultimately did. Eventually we tracked about 75% of the money flowing into the president’s coffers from tenants across the country. Instead, they stayed, for some reason electing to maintain two offices in Midtown Manhattan. Send me updates about Slate special offers. And again no one answered. Also strange: The lobby’s long list of tenants made no mention of the Qatar Investment Authority. Close to the time that workers were renovating the 43rd floor, the president’s attitude toward the Gulf nation changed. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Condé Nast. At 40 Wall Street, another colleague, Deniz Çam, found a directory of tenants, which was later removed. There’s plenty of evidence suggesting he was not. Of all the foreign government payments that spark allegations that Trump is flouting the emoluments clause, none involve more money than this one. That appears to be enough money to disprove the Trumps’ claim that they are handing over all their profits from foreign governments to the U.S. Treasury. He lamented the FCC’s refusal to approve a Sinclair Broadcast-Tribune Media merger, calling the move “disgraceful.” And he said that he was “not going to get involved in litigation” related to a potential AT&T-Time Warner combination but then declared it “a deal that’s not good for the country.” At the very least, those sorts of comments raise questions about the independence of the federal bureaucracy. By David Paul Morris/Bloomberg/Getty Images. If you see comments in violation of our rules, please report them. Email Print ... these properties and has sole decision-making authority. By law, the president has to disclose every company that pays him, but he does not have to reveal who, in turn, pays those companies. A free inside look at Qatar Investment Authority salary trends based on 2 salaries wages for 2 jobs at Qatar Investment Authority. The CEO ended up pleading guilty to first-degree bribery. Odds are, it adds up to a sum most billionaires not named Trump would hardly notice. Sounds simple. Raytheon CEO Thomas Kennedy was ready to ship off a couple of missile systems. Join Slate Plus to continue reading, and you’ll get unlimited access to all our work—and support Slate’s independent journalism. The FTC typically has five commissioners who weigh in on such things. There was a plant there, but it was dead. The Trump administration issued a review of the rule and postponed its implementation. Trump's stake in 555 California Street is one of his largest holdings as of 2020. It’s a massive loophole in federal disclosure laws, one that allows the president to accept money from entities all over the world without ever having to tell federal ethics officials who is paying him. Also on the guest list: Vornado CEO Steven Roth, Trump’s partner in the San Francisco tower where the Qatar Investment Authority had leased office space. President Trump left little doubt about whose side he was on in the dispute. There is simply too much money flowing between the federal government, President Trump, and private entities to investigate every deal—or the motivations behind it. But that wasn’t what happened. They may not have happened at all. Twenty-first Century Fox, the former parent company of Fox News, paid Trump a small sum for engineering space that appears to be connected to an antenna on top of Trump International Hotel & Tower, in New York City. CONTACT: JOSEPH MACNOW Capital One, which leased the corner space in Trump Park Avenue, faced an anti-money laundering investigation. Then there were law firms who served as tenants while lobbying on behalf of various foreign clients, including some with disastrous reputations. The Trump administration did, ultimately, end up implementing a different rule to try to protect investors from bad advice. Spokespeople for Vornado and the Qatar Investment Authority declined to comment. U.S.A. T: +1 (415) 619 3242. And that $1.2 million figure is before accounting for any of the foreign money flowing through Trump hotels in D.C. and elsewhere. The CEO of the Qatar Investment Authority, Mansoor bin Ebrahim Al-Mahmoud, was there. To get past them and into the heart of the building, I signed up for a desk in a coworking space on the 49th floor. “We expect to be cutting a lot out of Dodd-Frank because, frankly, I have so many people, friends of mine that have nice businesses that can’t borrow money. Born in Milan, he became a nuclear engineer before getting involved in his family’s struggling pharmaceutical business. Strip away the layers and it boils down to just the sort of arrangement the founding fathers feared. “I never saw a single person enter the office other than construction,” the person who worked in the building explained in a text message. Before me stood a pristine office with shiny concrete floors, subdued gray couches, empty chairs, and a sign that read, “Qatar Investment Authority Advisory (USA) Inc.” and, in smaller type, “A subsidiary of the Qatar Investment Authority.” Nothing inside the place looked as if it had been touched. However, when you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission. Dennis Muilenburg, then the CEO of Boeing, was selling five 777 Freighters to Qatar’s national airline. I rapped my knuckles on the glass doors. “We have no involvement or approval rights over the selection of any of the tenants in those buildings and play no role in the negotiation of any of their leases,” Garten explained in an email. Debate/discuss/argue the merits of ideas, don't attack people. The lobby features signs for Vornado Realty Trust, the publicly traded firm, with innumerable shareholders, that has a 70% stake in the tower. In January 2019, Bloomberg News reported that the bank was merely downsizing its space in Trump Tower, citing “people with knowledge of the matter.” If they did downsize, it doesn’t seem to have been by much. Also, there was the matter of the Qatar Investment Authority being a major investor in the company, Brookfield Asset Management, and Kushner’s support of a Saudi- and U.A.E.-led blockade of Qatar. Countless other foreign and American companies are also handing Trump money—sometimes without even knowing it—creating the most tangled web of ethical pitfalls the White House has ever seen. In 2014, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain pulled their ambassadors from Qatar, accusing the country of backing terrorists. By Dmitry Zhdannikov, Herbert Lash, Saeed Azhar. Two said they did not even realize they were renting from the president until Forbes informed them that they were. Peter DaSilva / The New York Times. All rights reserved. The Chinese government owns at least 70% of the bank, but even if you count only 70% of those profits as coming from a foreign government, you still end up with $1.2 million. Slate relies on advertising to support our journalism. When asked about this deal and others, a spokesperson for the White House replied in an email, “These are all questions for Trump Org. There's a ban on overseas travel from Australia.You can’t leave Australia unless you get an exemption from the Department of Home Affairs. There can be no assurance that a transaction will be completed. It’s unclear what, if anything, goes on inside the space. Once there, I rode down to a different floor, the 43rd, and walked off the elevator. Some of the names on the guest list were the sort of people you might expect—corporate titans with cash-fueled relationships in Qatar. The Trump administration issued waiver extensions to all three banks, as well as Trump’s lender, Deutsche Bank, allowing them to avoid part of their punishments. San Francisco. Thanks for signing up! 555 Mission Street. The QIA was founded by the State of Qatar in 2005 to strengthen the country's economy by diversifying into new asset classes. Vanity Fair may earn a portion of sales from products that are purchased through our site as part of our Affiliate Partnerships with retailers. The Trump Organization did not respond to an offer to review the data. As was the chairman, Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al-Thani, and two other directors, Saad Sherida Al-Kaabi and Ali Shareef Al-Emadi. A year later, Al-Thani returned to Washington. Trump expressed his excitement at hearing Dimon’s thoughts on Dodd-Frank, the landmark legislation intended to rein in the excesses that led to the Great Recession. The Qatar Investment Authority, which is controlled by the government of Qatar, is an investor in Brookfield and an occasional partner in joint ventures involving both enterprises. He took a seat at a long table, flanked by administration officials and leaders of eight businesses from around the country. 555 California Street (center) in San Francisco, California. None of this success is the product of Trump’s business savvy. Book online, pay at the hotel. Trump’s agreements with American companies proved just as problematic. America has other allies in the region, including Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. 47 as an autonomous governmental body responsible for the management of the assets of the country. So did UBS, which leases space in 555 California Street. The administration also went easy on Trump tenants convicted of committing crimes. On top of the counter sat a plant that looked like it had been dead for months. Get up-to-date business information, contact details, latest news and press releases and people contacts on ZAWYA MENA Edition According to Alexander, the QIA office isn’t listed on a directory in the building’s lobby nor on the QIA’s website, which does list another office in New York City. NEW YORK, June 23, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - VORNADO REALTY TRUST (NYSE: VNO) announced today that it is initiating a process to explore options to recapitalize, either together or separately, 1290 Avenue of the Americas, a 2.1 million square foot Manhattan office building, and 555 California Street, a three building, 1.8 million square foot office campus in San Francisco. To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories. The Qatar Investment Authority, which owns Qatar Holding, didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment.The deal closed as Dogus negotiates another … It didn’t go through an external one, either, since neither the Trump Organization nor the White House would release a list of the president’s tenants. Four foreign government entities—from China, Qatar, India, and the United Arab Emirates—have rented space in Trump’s buildings while he’s served as president. Qatar Investment Authority Advisory (USA) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qatar Investment Authority. Consider who owns the building. The attorneys who helped put together this plan made it seem like an airtight arrangement. Trump’s 30% share of the rent in the two office towers amounts to an estimated $99 million annually, or roughly 52% of the commercial rent flowing into the Trump Organization. Since the bank’s new space was about five times larger than its old office, it seemed likely that the Chinese would be moving out of Trump Tower. Why would anyone, much less an entity that serves as an arm of the Qatari government, bother outfitting an empty office space in an expensive San Francisco skyscraper? The company paid about $3.2 million a year for retail and office space. That means that Trump, who holds his commercial real estate portfolio through a web of entities, does not have to disclose who his tenants are. By hanging on to his portfolio, he put dozens of companies in the awkward position of asking the federal government for favors while paying the president huge sums of money. According to its constitutive instrument, QIA’s objectives are to develop, invest, and manage the state reserve funds and other property assigned to it by the Government via the Supreme Council of Economic Affairs and Investments. The QIA was founded by the State of Qatar in 2005 to strengthen the country's economy by diversifying into new asset classes. In early 2018, my former Forbes colleague Matt Drange and I started gathering data on who paid the president rent. Personal insults, shill or troll accusations, hate speech, any advocating or wishing death/physical harm, and other rule violations can result in a permanent ban. 2018-08-10 sec.gov - 1 - SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 SCHEDULE 13G (Rule 13d-102) INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED IN STATEMENTS FILED PURSUANT TO RULES 13d-1(b), (c) AND (d) AND AMENDMENTS THERETO FILED PURSUANT TO 13d-2 CREDIT SUISSE GROUP AG (Name of … The largest outside shareholder in Brookfield Property Partners is the Qatar Investment Authority. Again I knocked. In order to understand why Qatar might want to funnel cash to the president, it’s important to first understand U.S.–Qatari relations. The Qatar Investment Authority (QIA; Arabic: جهاز قطر للإستثمار ‎) is Qatar's sovereign wealth fund.The QIA was founded by the State of Qatar in 2005 to strengthen the country's economy by diversifying into new asset classes. Copyright © 2020 by Dan Alexander. Qatar through its investment arm, Qatar Investment Authority, has also been making strategic investments both in Qatar, and overseas to reduce its dependency on oil and gas. Headquartered in Doha, the QIA is structured to operate at the very highest levels of global investing. “Leaders pointed to Qatar—look!”. Suite 3400. Alexander’s findings suggest it also consisted of paying the president directly. The rent comes with some expenses—profit margins at Trump Tower are an estimated 42%. In the heart of San Francisco’s Financial District, a few blocks from the Transamerica Pyramid Center that defines the city’s skyline, sits a 52-story tower, the kind you might find in any major city. The next day, in the morning, I returned. It's his largest source of income, says Forbes senior editor Dan Alexander. “I have to say that the investments that you make in the United States,” he told his guests, “are very much appreciated.”. On this visit, the U.S. president commended Qatar for fighting against terrorism funding. According to a 2012 debt prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Chinese bank paid $1.9 million of rent a year, as part of a lease that was set to run out on October 31, 2019. Brookfield’s real estate arm, Brookfield Property Partners, invested in a fund that paid $1.3 billion to lease 666 Fifth Avenue, a troubled Manhattan skyscraper owned by the family of Trump’s son-in-law, Jared Kushner. Even Trump’s blue-chip tenants have had issues. That left the decision up to an administration whose president was collecting millions of dollars a year from one of the parties asking for clearance. According to filings Trump sent to federal ethics officials, the Donald J. Trump Revocable Trust owns 30% of HWA 555 Owners LLC. Besides, why would a tenant sign a 10-year renewal in 2015 if its agreement did not expire until 2019? The president gestured in the direction of Pessina. It sure seems like the Qatari government is using a dummy office to pay the president. Please try again. And again no one answered. By the time Trump finishes his first term in office, he will have collected about $750 million from more than 150 different tenants. Then he went to the office, and it was empty. Their businesses helped link the Qatari government to the president’s own family. And that trust, according to documents the Trump Organization submitted to authorities in Washington, D.C., was set up “to hold assets for the exclusive benefit of Donald J. Trump.” Trump, in other words, personally holds 30% of the space the Qataris are leasing. (Owen Byrne / Flickr-creativecommons) The Qatari government rents office space in … Cushman & Wakeeld is the exclusive agent for 1290 Avenue of the Americas and E astdil Secured is the exclusive agent for 555 California Street. Two weeks after his inauguration, Trump welcomed to the White House CEO Jamie Dimon, whose company, JPMorgan Chase, pays the president an estimated $2.5 million a year.

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